Visitor Info - Secwepemc Culture
The Secwepemc people are a nation of 17 communities that occupy the south-central part of British Columbia. Most non-natives know these people by the name Shuswap which is geographically misleading. These proud people have lived in the interior region for the better part of 10,000 years.
When Europeans reached the Secwepemc Nation their land holdings extended from the Columbia River Valley in the east to the Fraser River in the west and from the upper Fraser region in the north to the present Arrow Lakes in the south. A vast and diverse land of 56,000 square miles or 145,000 square kilometers.
The First Nations operated separately and independently but also worked together economically with trade routes throughout the territory and shared a common language, Secwepemctsin. They were traditionally a semi-nomadic people influenced by seasonal food resources and living conditions. They had designed warm semi-underground “pit houses” for winter comfort and cooler more mobile summer residences made of reeds called “mat house”.
Their economy was based on fishing, hunting and trading and their diet consisted mainly of meat, fish, berries and roots. Life style reflected a respect for nature and the cultivation of skills and traditions handed down for generations by oral tradition. All this was changed with the arrival of Europeans and the diseases they brought with them.
The diseases especially smallpox, introduced by white traders, prospectors, missionaries, miners and settlers decimated the Indigenous population completely destroying 32 Secwepemc villages. Shortly thereafter the Hudson’s Bay Company monopoly ended, the British crown authority took over and Indian reserves were established.
It has been a very difficult period from this point through the 1900’s. From residential schools, the destructive effects of alcoholism, high mortality rates for babies, poor parenting, loss of children to adoption programs outside their communities, high unemployment and incarceration rates. It is a saga of overwhelming odds where many would have given up and perished but the tide is turning.
“Weytk” means “welcome” in the native Shuswap language
Little Shuswap is known to its people as Skwlax. The settlers could not say the Shuswap name so it is known today as Squilax. Skwlax in the Shuswap language is known as black bear.
“Kekuli” Shuswap Winter Home
There numerous kekulis throughout the valley of the Shuswap. A kekuli or pit house was built down into the ground and was circular.
Central poles about 6 to 8 inches in diameter were placed firmly in the ground to support the roof which was made of smaller poles lashed together and ultimately covered with earth.
The entry and exit was through the smoke hole in the ceiling and held fifteen to thirty persons.
The Secwepemc or Shuswap Nation has been stewards of the Shuswap Lake area for at least ten thousand years. The Chase area of the Shuswap has three local Secwepemc Nation bands – the Neskonlith, Adams Lake and Little Shuswap.